Aus'meat Goat Meat and Live Goat Languages*
* This goat note includes those aspects of the languages relevant to marketing prime goat kids. Please refer to the entire goat languages, for further details.
THE VALUE OF A STANDARD LANGUAGE
For goat carcase description to work effectively it must offer advantages for all industry sectors (that is, processors, wholesalers, retailers, producers and consumers).
Processors are likely to initially bear the cost of carcase description. It therefore needs to be apparent to them that the ability to analyse daily and lot slaughter inventories against price received for carcases gives them efficiency and flexibility in buying. They stand to gain by being able to access a higher proportion of goats which are more cost efficient to process, and to make payments on the basis of carcase quality.
Once retailers are aware of their capacity to order goats of specific descriptions they will place pressure on the buying practices of processors. Retailers should be able to order specifically goat carcases, which are the most desirable for them. This should directly reflect consumer preferences and represents the start of an effective market signals system. In turn producers who receive feedback on lots sold over-the-hooks can adjust to processor preferences.
The value of carcase description:
Description of Goat Carcases
In many cases the only information received on goat carcases at the butcher shop would have been a delivery note, stating cold carcase weight for all of the carcases. In some cases the delivery may have had a ticket of some sort indicating a hot carcase weight.
How then could a butcher order a specific and consistent goat carcase? The answer is quite simply that in the past the butcher could only order on a weight range basis and some vague description of fatness.
Future Identification and Description Scheme
Industry pressure has intensified during the past two years to see widespread implementation of lamb carcase description in abattoirs. Major efforts are currently under way to implement a standardised carcase description system in the lamb industry which could have major repercussions in the goat meat industry.
The installation of equipment into interested abattoirs across Australia will mean participating abattoirs will be required to ticket carcases for weight and fat cover to ensure that the ticket accompanies the carcase to the retailer and to participate in quality control.
To be able to consistently supply to specifications goat meat producers will need to use objective measurement with a combination of visual and manual skills. Use of liveweight scales is of increasing importance to market animals within a liveweight range that will produce carcase weights of an acceptable tolerance. A sound knowledge and understanding of the pre-slaughter factors affecting carcase weight is essential to enable the estimation of dressing percentage and house the conversion of liveweight to carcase weight. Feedback from the abattoirs with objective measurements (carcase weights and fat scores ) will assist goat producers market animals that meet the market requirements.
GOAT MEAT LANGUAGE
STANDARD CARCASE DEFINITION
Other than skin-on goat carcase a goat carcase is the body of a slaughtered caprine animal after:
and the removal of:
The carcase must be weighed hot (Hot Standard Carcase Weight - HSCW).
AGE AND SEX RELATED CATEGORIES
Carcases may be classified into weight classes.
The classes are based on HSCW as follows:
Carcases may be classified into fat classes. These classes are decided by measuring the tissue depth at the GR site. Classes are as follows:
Goat classes may be identified as 'skin-on'.
Kid goats may as an option be alternatively described as "Capretto" but the carcase must meet the following requirements:
LIVE GOAT LANGUAGE
Further details on age, structural soundness, pregnancy status, horn status, fibre description and ear categories are contained in the complete AUS-MEAT Live Goat Language.
Goats are to be classified by purpose as either:
MIXED SEX (MI) can be used to described a lot or consignment of kids where there is no segregation of bucks, wethers and does.
Percentages of each description must be stated eg. 50% wethers, 50% does. Sex descriptions for males are also dependant upon the presence or otherwise of the secondary sex characteristic.
e.g. Pronounced muscular development of the neck and shoulders.
Age is determination by dentition and where practical the known age in months may also be stated, e.g. 2 tooth = 2T/17 months.
The following table is the standard guide to be used in the determination of age by dentition ( see goat note How to tell the age of goats).
Kid (K)a caprine that shows no evidence of eruption of permanent incisor teeth.
The following terms and abbreviations are to be used where it is necessary to specify any of the Optional Descriptions detailed below.
Breeds and types of goats and their crosses are to be written either in full or abbreviated in the following table.
In the case of crossbreeds, the breed of sire will appear first followed by the breed of dam.
The liveweight of goats will be determined, and any time off feed, or feed and water, immediately prior to weighing must be stated; e.g. " 8 hours off feed- 0 hours off water".
CARCASE WEIGHTThe carcase weight will be specified as either:
LIVE CONDITION SCORES
Goats are to be described by Live Condition Scores according to the following table.
© 2000 B.G.B.A.A.